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By Alexander Polishchuk

The purpose of this ebook is to provide a contemporary remedy of the speculation of theta services within the context of algebraic geometry. the newness of its technique lies within the systematic use of the Fourier-Mukai remodel. the writer begins via discussing the classical thought of theta capabilities from the perspective of the illustration conception of the Heisenberg staff (in which the standard Fourier rework performs the well known role). He then indicates that during the algebraic method of this conception, the Fourier–Mukai remodel can frequently be used to simplify the prevailing proofs or to supply thoroughly new proofs of many very important theorems. Graduate scholars and researchers with robust curiosity in algebraic geometry will locate a lot of curiosity during this quantity.

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At) - (b1 , ... , bt) if , al >- bl or al = b1 wi th (a2, ... , at) >- (b2, ... , bt). 24 0. Introduction and Prerequisites One sees at once that this defines an ordered monoid. There are useful variants of the lexicographic order (cf. Exercises B5 and B6), but we shall stick with this one, for the most part. Any subgroup of (R, +) is ordered, but Z x Z viewed in this way cannot be injected (as an ordered group) into (R, +); cf. Exercise B4. 3. If Ml, ... 2, also satisfies the minimum condition.

Thus we shall use results from [Rowl, Chapter 4] at will, with additive notation instead of multiplicative notation since we are dealing here with the additive group (M, +). ) It is convenient to start with the following notion. 2. , ra E N for all r E R, a E N. We write N < M to denote that N is a submodule of M. We write 0 for {0}; 0 and M itself are submodules of M. Any submodule of a submodule of M is itself a submodule of M. Concerning our two main examples: 1. If G is an Abelian group viewed as Z-module, then the submodules of G are precisely its subgroups; 2.

Suppose M is an R-module. Noether I. If f : M - N is an onto map (of modules), then N `= M/ ker f. THEOREM Noether II. If K < N < M, then M/N `= (M/K)/(N/K). Noether III. If K, N < M, then N/(K fl N) = (K + N)/K. Noether III has special significance: Note that the construction N/K only works if K < N. If K, N < M but K N, then the image of N under the natural map M -3 M/K is (K + N)/K, which appears in Noether III. 14. Suppose R is an integral domain, with 0 r E R, and A C B are ideals of R. Then rB/rA = B/A as R-modules.

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