By Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer
This monograph presents a global point of view on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, together with the matter of geogenic acidification. a lot has been realized over the last decade via learn and functional event on how one can mitigate or remediate the environmental difficulties of acidic pit lakes. within the first a part of the booklet, basic medical concerns are provided in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental technology, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and at the odd organic positive aspects that ensue within the severe habitats of acidic pit lakes. one other bankruptcy presents an outline of tools at present used to remediate acidic pit lakes and deal with outflowing acidic water. the second one a part of the ebook is a set of local surveys of pit lake difficulties from 3 eu international locations and Australia, and case reviews of assorted person consultant lakes. a last case examine offers an cutting edge method of assessing the industrial price of latest pit lakes and balancing the prices and merits, a priceless software for selection makers.
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Extra resources for Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines
In other regions where such a separation is not necessary, the concept can easily be adapted by reducing the number of zones. Extension of the zones generally depends on the local hydrogeological conditions of a particular mine site. For the conditions of the Central German lignite mining district, Grützmacher et al. (2001) reported 1–6 m thickness for zone Ia, up to 500 m extension for zone II, and 500–2000 m extension for zone III. As long as the water level in a pit lake is considerably lower than the groundwater level, a significant amount of the underground strata will remain aerated and may form a long term source of acidity until all of the pyrite is oxidized and the acidic products are washed out by interflow and groundwater recharge.
6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 temperature [°C] Fig. 5 m—epilimnion, 5 m—hypolimnion, 9 m—monimolimnion; modified after Karakas et al. 2003) the hypolimnion conductivity remains roughly constant. High concentrations of dissolved substances can contribute to epilimnetic water density. Especially in areas of dry summers, this effect can contribute to deep mixing when the higher epilimnetic concentrations of dissolved substances help overcome temperature stratification when falling autumn temperatures allow deep mixing.
14) lay below the sill depth of the neighboring Mühlbeck and Döbern subbasins. e. first mode internal waves), were not able to leave the basin. The internal wave recorded at location XN5 had a period of 4 h. This oscillation period was clearly related to the size of the Niemegk subbasin. The oscillation of the thermocline induced currents in the epilimnion (and hypolimnion). However, as the thermocline oscillation was confined to the subbasin, surface currents must have felt the sill although they flowed clearly above the sill depth.