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By Michael Goodfellow (Eds.)

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Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 47, 2062-2069. Habu, S. and Raff, M. C. (1977). Accessory cell dependence of lectin-induced proliferation of mouse T-lymphocytes. European Journal of Immunology 7, 4 5 1 ^ 5 7 . Hagedorn, C. (1976). Influence of soil acidity on Streptomyces populations inhabiting forest soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 32, 368-375. Hamill, R. , H o e h n , M. , Boeck, L. D . , Carrell, C. B . , Barnhart, M. and B o n o , M. D e (1980). A21978C: A complex of new acidic peptide antibiotics.

1985). This compound, a macrolide which contains the relatively unusual flavenosmycinic acid moiety, exhibited good activity against Hymenolepis diminuta in a rat model. The avermectins and milbemycins are of significant commercial importance. The avermectins were discovered by Burg et al. (1979) as products of S. avermitilis using an animal model to detect anticoccidial agents. They were later shown to exhibit broad insecticidal activity even at very low concentrations. Such is their activity that they have been considered for use in the control of the spread of major tropical public health problems such as onchoceriasis (river blindness).

Maximizing the sensitivity 42 Y. OKAMI A N D K. HOTTA of the analytical procedure to detect antibiotics in the culture broths is also critical. Moreover, establishment of criteria to select potential novel antibiotics producers is desirable. A. R A R E A C T I N O M Y C E T E S A S S C R E E N I N G SOURCE Until 1974, antibiotics of actinomycete origin were almost exclusively provided by Streptomyces (about 95% of a total of about 2000 antibiotics). Thereafter, the role of 'rare' actinomycetes as an antibiotic source became apparent as these organisms provided about 25% of the approximately 1100 antibiotics of actinomycete origin reported in the following six years (Nisbet, 1982).

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