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By Stephan Bathe, Merle De Kreuk

Cardio Granular Sludge has lately got becoming awareness by way of researchers and expertise builders, around the world. Laboratory experiences and initial box try resulted in the belief that granular activated sludge may be comfortably confirmed and profitably utilized in activated sludge vegetation, supplied "correct" strategy stipulations are selected. yet what makes approach stipulations "correct"? And what makes granules diversified from activated sludge flocs? solutions to those questions are provided in cardio Granular Sludge. significant subject matters coated during this publication contain: - purposes and mechanisms of cardio granule formation - constitution of the microbial inhabitants of cardio granules - function, composition and actual homes of EPS - Diffusion quandary and microbial task inside of granules - Physico-chemical features - Operation and alertness of granule reactors - Scale-up features of granular sludge reactors, and case experiences cardio Granular Sludge presents up to date information regarding a swiftly rising new know-how of organic therapy.

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Sci. , 26 (3/4), 693-702. , Eikelboom. (1995). Biofilm structures. Wat. Sci. , 32(8), 35-43. 2 Linggong road, Ganjingzi district, Dalian, 116023, P. R. China Abstract The factors influencing the stability of aerobic granules were studied in three sequencing batch airlift reactors (SBAR). 3 cm/s was supplied in the reactors when sucrose supplied as carbon source and aerobic granules were observed by light microscopy. 2 cm/s were broken down for heavy growth of filamentous organisms. 3 cm/s with sucrose as carbon source because of heavy growth of filamentous organisms in the reactor.

Open circles in the top graph indicate NH4+-N concentration in the influent. Nitrifying Granules in an Aerobic Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor 23 Nitrification efficiency under short HRT conditions In order to show further potential of the nitrifying granules, they were applied to wastewater with a low concentration of ammonia (50 g-N'rn') under short HRT conditions (24 - 72 min). The time courses of water quality data (influent and effluent concentrations of NH/-N, granule average diameter, MLSS and washout MLSS) are shown in Figure 7 along with the ammonia removal rate and efficiency.

Layer Average depth of layer from surface of granule and average thickness Aerobic ammoniaoxidizing bacteria 70 IJm (depth); 30 IJm (thickness) Facultative anaerobic enterobacteria Concentration increased to maximum at a depth of 450 IJm and remained stable at depths from 450 to 850 IJm Obligate anaerobic bacteria Bacteroides spp. 1 /lm microspheres Layer of active biomass Polysaccharides Core of dying cells in the centre of granule 850 IJm (depth); 150 IJm (thickness) Assumed function in the granule It reflects the depth of oxygen diffusion into granule Bacteria perform both aerobic and anaerobic processes It reflects the presence anaerobic zone in granule Depth linearly depends on granule diameter by equation 1.

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