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Additional resources for Agricultural extension and research: achievements and problems in national systems
The concept also aimed to provide feedback on farmers' needs to the research system, and to maintain close links between research and extension. It was called the training and visit (T&V) model. T&V was first introduced in Turkey in 1967 and subsequently spread to the South Asia (SAS) region in the early 1970s. This marked the beginning of T&V dominance in Bank-supported extension projects, especially those in SAS, East Asia and Pacific (EAP), and Africa (AFR) regions. The Bank continued to support commodity-specific extension services, technical assistance aligned with credit delivery, and other intensive services associated with specific development projects.
The extension subsector and an overview of Bank lending 55 The development of extension programs 55 The Bank's role 56 Bank lending for extension 57 Benchmark for extension performance in the 1980s 59 2. Impact of extension investments 64 Difficulties in measuring outcomes 64 Performance ratings of completed projects 68 3. Performance in each region 73 South Asia 73 East Asia and Pacific 76 Africa 78 Latin America and the Caribbean 81 Europe, Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa 82 4. Findings 84 The ex post findings 84 More recent developments 92 Conclusion 94 5.
The design and performance of investments are compared with the recommendations of an earlier review of the subsector produced by OED in 1983, and with a research policy paper released by the Bank in 1980. Extensive use was made of evaluation reports on individual completed projects to determine the extent to which each project was relevant to country circumstances, was efficiently implemented, and was efficacious in meeting project objectives. Due to the nature of the investments and to prevailing Bank practice in processing these types of projects, these ex post assessments generally did not involve economic impact assessments.