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The second method is called electroporation and involves subjecting the protoplasts to a high voltage pulse of electricity. This causes the formation of pores in the plant cell membrane and, although these must be repaired very rapidly to prevent the protoplasts from dying, it briefly allows DNA to be taken up by the protoplasts. Direct gene transfer into protoplasts is most commonly used as a research tool. A gene of interest is introduced into protoplasts so that its activity and function can be studied.

Gene silencing by this method requires the introduced gene to be extremely similar or identical to the native gene, so can be avoided if over-expression is the desired outcome by using a gene from a not too closely related species. Both co-suppression and antisense gene silencing have been used to produce genetically modified plants in which the trait is stably inherited, and both techniques have found commercial application in the extension of fruit shelf-life, most famously that of the tomato (see Chapter 3).

A blue colour develops in the endosperm tissue from mid-development seeds but not in sections taken from anywhere else in the plant. 11 Promoter Types The Glu-D1x promoter is known as a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated promoter, being active in only one tissue type in the plant at a specific developmental stage. There are many different promoters of this type now available for plant biotechnology, and they are active in many different tissues and even cell types. 9 shows β-glucuronidase activity in the roots, anthers and egg sacs of three different GM wheat plants, each containing the UidA gene under the control of a different promoter.

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