By Johannes Lehmann, Dirse C. Kern, Bruno Glaser, William I. Woods
Darkish Earths are a testomony to vanished civilizations of the Amazon Basin, yet can also resolution how huge societies may well maintain in depth agriculture in an atmosphere of infertile soils. This booklet examines their foundation, homes, and administration. Questions stay: have been they deliberately produced or a spinoff of habitation. extra new and multidisciplinary views through major specialists may possibly pave the way in which for the following revolution in soil administration within the humid tropics.
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Extra resources for Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management
In any case, ADEs are ubiquitous in the later archaeological record of Amazônia, consistently associated with concentrations of ceramic, lithic, faunal and botanical remains, as well as with archaeological features such as burial mounds and artificial ditches. The socio-cultural practices that generated terra preta are still not fully understood, however. In this chapter, we discuss some hypotheses about ADE formation in light of recent advances in archaeological, geochemical, ethnographic, biogeographical and pedological research.
Stone axes cut poorly; they dull and break and the shafts come undone, requiring frequent polishing, repair, and replacement; and suitable stone in Amazônia may be hundreds of miles away. The historical short-cropping/long-fallowing shifting cultivation system has been made possible by labor efficient metal axes. In pre-European times with stone axes there must have been much less frequent forest clearing. Once a clearing was established, such as at a tree-fall, natural burn, or a blow-down from violent wind, the clearing could have been cultivated semi-permanently, possibly with gradual enlargement at the edges.
Vásquez de Espinosa, A. (1948). Compendio y descripción de las Indias Occidentales . U. ), Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 108. : Smithsonian Institution. Williamson, J. A. (1923). English colonies in Guiana and on the Amazon, 1604-1668. Oxford: Clarenden Press. Woods, W. M. (1999). The anthropogenic origin and persistence of Amazonian dark earths. In C. ), Yearbook 1999 – Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers, Vol. 25 (pp. 7-14). Austin: University of Texas Press. I. (2003). History of Anthrosol Research.