By Toshi H. Arimura
Focusing on pollution, power potency and weather switch, this ebook offers an creation to Japan’s environmental rules and laws, and gives monetary analyses and RIAs (Regulatory effect research) of environmental laws carried out or deliberate through the nationwide and native governments. the outlet bankruptcy studies environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using previous and polluting automobiles in metropolitan parts. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan executive rules which calls for set up of pollutants regulate apparatus in older vehicles that fail to fulfill emission criteria. bankruptcy four lines the influence of the NOx-PM Act at the used automobile industry and used motor vehicle exports. bankruptcy five provides an monetary research of a road toll relief, revealing an unforeseen damaging social influence: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters tackle guidelines and laws on the topic of power potency and weather switch bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s strength Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended a variety of instances to handle weather swap. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the influence of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate temporary fiscal affects in every one zone. additionally awarded here's an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the influence of the idea on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the position and boundaries of monetary versions for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse fuel) emission goal through the post-Kyoto interval. this is often the 1st ebook to guage eastern environmental regulations from an fiscal standpoint, utilizing quite a few present quantitative methods. Its findings and proposals will gain scholars, coverage makers and executive officers in constructing and built nations the place the general public faces related environmental problems.
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Extra resources for An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics
2, Y for each vehicle type is fixed between 1997 and 2002 because during these years, the terminal year increased by one year if the initial registration year was one year later. 3 29 Income from Selling Old Vehicles We then formalized the income obtained from selling old vehicles. Because the price of a new vehicle is relatively higher, owners gain more income by selling them under the VTR than in its absence. To incorporate this relationship, we used the yearly average depreciation rate sr provided in the work of Kuroda et al.
If the cost of complying with the VTR increases the price of freight transportation, which in turn leads to a significant change in the demand for freight, then we would need to consider how consumer surplus changes. However, according to 9 Replacement with used vehicles will be treated as replacement with new vehicles. 4 Cost of the VTR 25 JAMA (2005a), the VTR and the NOx-PM Act are generally unlikely to cause fare increases. Hence, in this study, the cost strictly refers to the cost of complying with the VTR.
2005). These considerations were not incorporated into our estimates because of data limitations. As such, we may have overestimated the true cost. When replacing old vehicles, owners may purchase approved used vehicles rather than new vehicles. Because data on the prices of used trucks were not available when we conducted this study, we assumed that old trucks are exclusively replaced with new trucks. As the prices of used vehicles are lower than those of new vehicles, our model may again overestimate the true cost.