Download Analyzing Animal Societies: Quantitative Methods for by Hal Whitehead PDF

By Hal Whitehead

While you're within the box of ethology or behavioral ecology, or the rest learning animal habit, this e-book can provide every little thing you must find out about social analyses. Hal Whitehead lays out targeted yet comprehensible guideline on every thing from information assortment to software program courses. i admire it.

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2). I have stressed two-dimensional ordinations of data or similarity matrices in this section. The principal output are “scores,” the coordinates of the points in the two dimensions (as depicted, for instance in Fig. 3). 2). Ordination can also be done in one, three, or more dimensions. ) of how well the data are represented in any specified number of dimensions. When a data matrix is ordinated using principal components or correspondence analysis, then we also get useful information on the other axis of the matrix.

5). 5). A dissimilarity matrix is structured like a similarity matrix, with individuals as both rows and columns, but here, high values indicate less similarity. A matrix of geographic distances between locations is a dissimilarity matrix. Dissimilarity matrices can be converted into similarity matrices 38 CHAPTER TWO by simple transformations, such as “(1 − x)” or “(1/x)”. Association indices, and so matrices of association indices, are usually transformed into dissimilarities by taking the square root of 1 minus the association index.

There are many pitfalls here (some noted by Wilson 1975, pp. , into bits), and how to standardize time scales. I do not cover these areas in this book, but Bradbury and Vehrencamp (1998, esp. pp. 387–418) provide an excellent introduction. 20 CHAPTER ONE r Fraction of time devoted to social behavior. This useful measure of sociality is one product of an ethogram that is described by Lehner (1998, pp. 90–93) but is not covered in this book. The proportion of energy devoted to social behavior would also be of interest.

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